design is the process designers use to build interfaces in software or computerized devices, focusing on looks or style
Contents
UX
UI
CX
SD
IxD
Research icon
Research
Research
Rules icon
Rules
Rules
Metrics icon
Metrics
Metrics
Principles icon
Principles IxD
Principles IxD
General terms icon
General terms SD
General terms SD
User Feedback icon
User Feedback
User Feedback
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Composition
Composition
General terms icon
General terms IxD
General terms IxD
Experience type icon
Experience type
Experience type
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Analytics
Analytics
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Grid Type
Grid Type
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Approach-CX
Approach-CX
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Approach-UX
Approach-UX
Elements icon
Elements
Elements
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Production
Production
Typography icon
Typography
Typography
Testing icon
Testing
Testing
Color icon
Color
Color
Structure icon
Structure
Structure
Ecosystem icon
Ecosystem
Ecosystem
2-second rule
3-Click Rule
60-30-10 Rule
8dp Grid
A/B Testing
Above the fold
Accessibility
Activity-centered design (ACD)
Actor
Affinity map
Alert
Alternative colors
Animation
Anti-pattern
Ascender
Aspect ratios
Autocomplete
B2B customer experience
B2C customer experience
Backdrop
Background color
Backward compatibility
Balance
Banner
Baseline
Benefit Map
Between-subjects design studies
Body
Bodystorming
Bottom navigation bar
Brand experience
Breadcrumbs
Breakdown Analysis
Breakpoint
Call to Action (CTA)
Cap line
Card Sorting
Card sorting
Charts
Checkbox
Chips
Clearly marked exit
Clickstream
Coach marks
Color Wheel
Column
Comparative analysis
Competitive analysis
Consistency
Container
Contextual action bar (CAB)
Contextual inquiry (CI)
Contextual interviews
Conversion rate
Corridor testing
Customer Satisfaction Score (CSAT)
Customer centricity
Customer churn
Customer effort score (CES)
Customer lifecycle (CLC)
Customer lifetime value (CLV)
Customer review
Dark patterns
Data-driven design
Date picker
Descender
Design concept
Design thinking
Dialog window
Dialogs
Dropdowns
Early adopter
Educational Content
Emphasis
Empty states
End users
Entry tunnel
Error color
Experience map
Explicit destruction
Eye-tracking
Eyetracking
F-Shaped Pattern
Field studies
Filled icon
First click testing
First-time user experience (FTUE)
Fixed grid
Floating action button (FBA)
Fluid grid
Focus groups
Golden ratio
Grid
Gutter
Hamburger icon
Headline
Heat map
Hierarchy
Hypothesis-driven design
Information architecture
Input text field
Interactive prototype
Iterative testing
Justification
Kerning
Keylines
Label text
Layout
Leading (Line spacing)
Legibility
Ligature
Look & Feel
Low-fidelity prototype
MVP (Minimum valuable product)
Margin 
Microtypography
Mind Map
Mockup
Navigation drawer
Net promoter score (NPS)
Omnichannel
Onboarding
Out-of-Box Experience
Overshoot
Padding
Page controls
Participatory design
Persona
Personalization
Picker
Placeholder
Pop-up
Primary color
Progress indicator
Prototyping
Proximity
Radio button
Readability
Red Route
Remote Testing
Requirements gathering
Responsive design
Retention
Retrospective Testing
Scenario
Scrim
Scroll bar
Search box
Secondary color
Service Blueprinting
Service-oriented design
Side sheet
Sitemap
Sketching
Slider
Snackbar
Spinner
Stakeholders interview
Steppers
Storyboards
Stretchable surface
Strikethrough
Styleguide
Subtitles
System usability scale (SUS)
Tab
Target audience
Task analysis
Taxonomy
Text area
Text button
The 10 minutes rule
Thinking Aloud Protocol
Toggle
Tooltip
Top app bar
Touchpoint
Tracking
Tree testing
UI guidelines
UI regions
Underline
Unfilled icon
Usability
Usability testing
Use case
User behavior
User behavior analytics (UBA)
User engagement
User experience ecosystem (UXE)
User feedback loop
User flow
User story
User story map
User-centered design (UCD)
User-generated content
Vertical rhythm
Voice of customer (VoC)
Whitespace
Widget
Dropdowns
Proximity
Picker
Charts
A/B Testing
Thinking Aloud Protocol
Dialogs
Spinner
First-time user experience (FTUE)
Coach marks
X-height
Empty states
Hamburger icon
Contextual inquiry (CI)
Placeholder
Educational Content
Out-of-Box Experience
Baseline
Steppers
Cap line
Ascender
Descender
Tracking
Overshoot
Strikethrough
Underline
Emphasis
Justification
Ligature
Balance
Microtypography
Legibility
User-generated content
Responsive design
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
Eyetracking
Remote Testing
Card Sorting
Requirements gathering
Retrospective Testing
Red Route
Scenario
Tree testing
User feedback loop
Taxonomy
Styleguide
Competitive analysis
Contextual interviews
Field studies
Focus groups
Stakeholders interview
Breakdown Analysis
Conversion rate
Between-subjects design studies
Card sorting
Corridor testing
End users
Heat map
User engagement
User behavior
User behavior analytics (UBA)
MVP (Minimum valuable product)
Persona
Target audience
Use case
User flow
User story map
Mind Map
Activity-centered design (ACD)
Data-driven design
Design concept
Explicit destruction
Hypothesis-driven design
Participatory design
Service-oriented design
User-centered design (UCD)
Interactive prototype
Look & Feel
Low-fidelity prototype
Mockup
Sitemap
Sketching
Wiferame
Accessibility
Clickstream
First click testing
Iterative testing
Task analysis
Usability testing
3-Click Rule
Consistency
F-Shaped Pattern
Readability
Call to Action (CTA)
Aspect ratios
Breakpoint
Golden ratio
Gutter
Column
Grid

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Ligature

Synonyms: 
underscore, low line, low dash

Ligature takes place when two or more graphemes or letters make a combination as one symbol, as in the English character “æ” that merges letters “a” and “e”.

Typography is an astonishing art with lots of useful features that can also help to build a great interface design and make it advanced usability-wise. Compared to printed typography, web typefaces are a lot less detailed, but the ligatures are here to bring in some diversity to your text. 

Historical Tips

It is believed that ligatures were created by merchants who needed a way to speed up the written communication process. They realized that conjoined letters and abbreviations make the working process with long forms more convenient.

Ligatures were used widely until the start of Apple II production in 1977. Early digital software wasn’t able to support the ligatures in typefaces so they were excluded.

The popularity of ligatures increased again in the last 20 years because of the interest for creative typesetting systems.

Ligatures Today

Modern ligatures are divided into three groups which are:

  1. Standard ligatures that are necessary to make the font to display correctly.
  2. Contextual ligatures that are used to create a certain image.
  3. Historical ligatures that are being implemented to give the text a vintage print look.

One of the most common ligature examples is ampersand (&) that was developed from the combination of handwritten latin letters “e” and “t” (“et” means “and” in Latin). German letter ß (Eszett) is an official letter in German and Austrian alphabets, but was basically created after the connection of "long s and z" (ſʒ). Armenian, scandinavian, cyrillic, chinese and japanese languages also have some ligature examples.

Digital fonts cannot have physical collisions, but some visual overlaps are still possible. In this case there are some hacks on how to put the ligatures into your text manually:

  • You may try to insert the ligatures from a character palette in your editor.
  • If using HTML, you may enter the escape codes for the ligature glyphs.
  • If your operating system or browser supports Unicode, you can use certain code to insert the ligatures within installed Unicode fonts.
  • You can also try to use the kerning to adjust the distance between letters and create the ligatures where needed.

FAQs

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